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Genghis Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire

 Genghis Khan, Mongolian leader, warrior and ruler, is one of the most famous invaders in history. He united the Mongol tribes and was able to establish the Mongol Empire by uniting the nomadic tribes of the Mongols and Tatars.



His empire is the largest empire in history, and his descendants and wars have changed the political arrangement of the world and reduced its population. It invaded the Islamic world and caused massive destruction and brutal massacres.


Who is Genghis Khan?

Genghis Khan was born into a family of Mongolian nomads on the banks of the Onon River near Lake Baikal in Mongolia, and his original name was Temujin.


Due to the ambiguity of Mongol history at this time, accounts differed as to the date of his birth. Some say he may have been born in 1155 AD, and others say it was 1162 AD and his birth was auspicious. according to the belief of the Mongols.


His father, Yesugei, was a descendant of a royal Mongol clan and the leader of the Borjigin clan. Before Genghis Khan was born, he defeated one of the enemy tribes and killed its leader. He is said to have named his son Temujin in his honor. the assassinated leader.


Yesugei kidnapped Temujin's mother on her wedding night from another man, becoming his second wife. Their son Temujin was said to have been born with a ball of congealed blood, which meant to the Mongols that he would be a great warrior.


Growing up and youth

Temujin's childhood was not easy. His father took him when he was nine to a neighboring tribe to work for several years, then he became engaged to a girl named Borji.


During this period, the father died of poisoning, caused by a band of Tatar nomads, a nomadic people in ancient enmity with the Mongols.


With Yesugei's death, the clan abandoned Temujin, his mother, and his seven brothers, and a rival family took over and expelled them, considering them too weak to assume leadership. He and his family members lived in difficult conditions and suffered. of extreme poverty to the point that they ate plants and fish, while the Mongol nomads' livelihood depended mainly on lamb meat and mare's milk.


Despite these difficult circumstances, Temujin was able to mobilize support and support through the force of his personality, and the Taishut tribe is said to have captured him and kept him in their camps instead of killing him.


One night, Temujin noticed that his guard was not tight, so he decided to escape while the guards were having dinner and felled the guard with one shot from his wooden collar.


The people of Taishut searched for him all night, and one of them spotted him, but helped him escape, risking his life, and did not disown him.


On another occasion, thieves stole 8 of 9 horses belonging to Temujin's poor family, chased them and, on the way, asked a strange young man who was treating them if he had seen them. The young man left the trade and gave Temujin a horse. , and went with him as an assistant in the search for the missing horses.


His tribe gradually began to recognize his leadership and his family, until his horse-finding companion refused to receive a reward from him, so Temujin took him as a companion.


Despite ostracism and poverty, his family retained a certain prestige, due to its membership of the royal Borjigin dynasty.


At the age of 16, Temujin went in search of his fiancée Borji, a girl from the tribe living in northern Mongolia, who was not on good terms with Temujin, because her father had kidnapped his wife from the one of their men.


Genghis Khan Industry

As a teenager, Temujin killed his older half-brother, assumed leadership of the family, and entered into an alliance with Ong Khan, the leader of a powerful clan.


Ong Khan accepted the alliance and Temujin's allies were a group of skilled warriors instead of his relatives, which was contrary to what the Mongols were accustomed to.


During this period, Borji (Temujin's wife) was kidnapped from her tribe, in retaliation for what Temujin's father had done. So he recovered it during a raid with the help of Ong Khan and plundered his tribe's camps.


Genghis Khan had a childhood ally and friend named Jamuka, and their relationship grew from friendship to conflict and competition that lasted two decades and ended in their separation.


Historical sources do not specifically mention what happened after this incident, but it is likely that he followed Borghi's advice and that many of Jamuka's men abandoned him and accompanied Genghis Khan, as they thought he was more capable of ruling the empire alone.


The separation from Jamuka led to a dispute within the Mughal Empire, which was to be resolved by the disappearance of one of the two opponents.


Jamuka led a coalition of rival princes against Genghis Khan and named himself "Gur Khan", but Genghis Khan's greatness at that time was stronger than Jamuka's coup, and Ong Khan gave him a position raised and supported him.


Unification of the Mongols

Genghis Khan had physical strength and martial skills. He executed his enemies, the tribal leaders, and integrated the subjects into his tribe, making some of them his soldiers and slaves. He organized his warriors into units of 10 individuals.


Khan was of pagan religion and followed some Mongol shamanistic beliefs, which sanctified the winds, mountains, and what they considered to be the spirits of the sky, but his followers were said to belong to different sects, including Christians, Buddhists, and Muslims.


By 1205, he had unified the steppe tribes and defeated all his rivals, establishing a state the size of present-day Mongolia. He was then named Genghis Khan, which in Altaic means “universal ruler”.


He regularly monitored the seeds of rebellion and made sure to kill his Bedouin enemies. He fought and defeated the Tatars, then massacred everyone whose height exceeded the height of the cart axle, leaving only the children he assumed to be his loyal followers. .


It is said in The Secret History of the Mongols (one of the most famous historical sources from this period) that Genghis Khan intended to exterminate all aristocratic families who competed with him.


Genghis Khan rejected tribal loyalties that favored fragmentation, so he pledged allegiance to him in 1206 as emperor of all the people of the steppe, and thousands of families were divided into the care of his kinsmen and companions, in a system similar to that of the feudal structure, to replace the tribal and clan system.


Then, Mongol tribes gathered and took control of much of Siberia and what is now China's Xinjiang province, and Genghis Khan ruled with a civil and military code called "Yasq."


Genghis Khan had annexed the lands of the Naiman tribe, which had allied itself with Jamuka. Kushluk, the son of the Naiman leader, fled to the Karakhtian state, married the daughter of its ruler, then turned against him after a while and declared himself. king.


Kushluk attacked a city belonging to the Mongols, so Genghis Khan sent an army to eliminate him and annexed the Karakhtian state to the Mongol empire, so that its borders were adjacent to the Khwarezmian Islamic state.


Conquest of the Islamic world

Genghis Khan wanted to enter into a trade alliance with the Khwarezmian state, which at the time controlled Central Asia and was in a state of hostility and war with the rest of the surrounding Islamic countries.


Genghis Khan sent a huge caravan loaded with gifts to Sultan Alaeddin Muhammad Khwarezm Shah to establish trade relations with the Khwarezmian state.


As the caravan passed through a town belonging to the Khwarezmian state, Governor Inaljik captured the caravan's merchants and informed the Sultan of his suspicions that they were spies. Sultan Jalal al-Din gave him permission to kill them, so he executed them all.


Genghis Khan was angry and sent 3 ambassadors to Sultan Jalal al-Din and asked him to hand over Enaljik and pay appropriate compensation, but the Sultan refused and killed one of Genghis Khan's ambassadors and him sent the head with the rest of the ambassadors after shaving. their faces.


This act incited Genghis Khan to take revenge on the Khwarezmian state. He prepared an army of 100,000 soldiers, divided it into 4 groups led by his sons, and sent a group to deceive the Khwarezmians into believing that it was the main Mongol army.


He continued his attacks and siege of Islamic cities, and the city of Atrar was the first city to fall to the Mongols, so they destroyed the city, executed the inhabitants, and killed Enaljik.


In 1220, Genghis Khan headed to the city of Bukhara. His army fought the Mongols outside the city, but the Mongols were defeated, burned its mosques, killed the inhabitants and captured some of them.


Then the Mongols moved towards Samarkand, whose army surrendered, while its inhabitants took up arms. The Mongols eliminated them, entered Samarkand, plundered and destroyed it.


Sultan Alaeddin Muhammad Khwarazm Shah fled with his son and army commanders, so Genghis Khan ordered his pursuit. Many cities were destroyed during this pursuit and the Mongols took control of the wealth of the Khwarezm state.


Establish a postal system

One of the most notable things that helped the Mongols in their conquests was their innovative postal system at the time, as they established a fast postal service which they called "Yam", which relied on a group of station chains well distributed throughout the country. the whole empire.


This system was used to quickly transport goods and information, changing horses and messengers after traveling certain distances.


Sons and daughters of Genghis Khan

In 1222, Genghis Khan discussed the question of succession with his sons, but his four sons disagreed on this point, and the eldest son, Jochi, was excluded from the contest, because they considered him a son illegitimate, because his birth took place months after Burgei. was kidnapped after her marriage to Genghis Khan.


The second son, Chagatai, competed for succession, but it was for the third son, Ogudi, who took over East Asia (now China), while his younger brother Tolui ruled over Mongolia and his son Yuchi died in February 1227.


As for his daughters, they were part of his politics. He married them to the rulers of neighboring tribes, and he sent their husbands on his expansionist campaigns, and death was often their fate, so his daughters were crowned rulers of their country. its nine regions, which increases the strength of its influence.

The wives of Genghis Khan

Women were clearly present in Genghis Khan's life. He married six times and had hundreds of concubines and concubines. He also chose the most beautiful women and demanded that his concubines be short. noses, long hair and beautiful voices.


He rated their beauty in points, giving those with lower points to his assistants, and he was known to sleep with the wives of his enemies and defeated adversaries.


Despite his brutality, Genghis Khan respected his wives, especially his first wife, Borji. He consulted her and named her first empress of the Mongols.


He also loved his second wife, Khawlan, and took her with him on his military campaigns. He also married two Tatar princesses after killing their parents during one of his campaigns.


Due to his large number of wives, Genghis Khan had many descendants, as did his sons, rulers of Asia, leading geneticists to estimate that 0.5% of the world's population is genetically related to Genghis Khan.


This estimate was published in a landmark genetic study published in the American Journal of Human Genetics in 2003. The study tracked men genetically linked to an ancestor and found that 16 million men in Asia were genetically linked to an chromosome, and that they all originated from a single ancestor. a geographical area located within the borders of the former Mongol Empire.


Tomb of Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan died in August 1227 during a campaign against the Tangut people, and his death was said to have been of natural causes, which negated his belief that he "knew the secret of eternal life".


It is also said that his death was the result of an accident in early 1227, when he fell from his horse, causing internal injuries from which he did not recover.


Sources have not yet identified Genghis Khan's grave, but his body was transported to Mongolia.


Some view Genghis Khan as a brutal, bloodthirsty warrior and conqueror, while the Mongols see him as a unifying leader, world ruler, and divine symbol.


It is worth noting that Genghis Khan did not have a photo or drawing during his life, but historical sources describe his appearance as tall, strong, with a thick beard and a long lock of hair.

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