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The story of Alp Arslan, part two

 La relation avec les Abbassides

Alp Arslan a commencé à rétablir les relations avec le calife abbasside, il a donc pris une décision corrective. Son oncle Tughrul Bey avait fiancé la fille du calife, un acte qui allait au-delà des traditions établies dans les relations avec les Abbassides et un autre dirigeant, Abu. Muslim Al-Khorasani, avait déjà été impliqué dans cette affaire lorsqu'il avait proposé à Amina bint Ali bin Abdullah bin Abbas, la tante du calife Abu Abbas al-Saffah, et l'affaire s'était terminée par une insulte sans réponse, même s'il était le propriétaire de l'État et le commandant des centaines de milliers de soldats qui ont hissé les drapeaux noirs et établi le califat abbasside. De plus, Abu Jaafar al-Mansur se l'a confié, et c'est l'une des raisons pour lesquelles cela l'a poussé à le faire. assassiner Abu Muslim sous le règne d'Al-Mansur et à la cour du calife.

Le calife s'enfuit, il rejeta donc la demande de Tughrul Bey et lui demanda pardon, mais le sultan Selluqi insista et lui et son ministre, le doyen du roi Al-Kandari, prirent des mesures qui resserrèrent les vis du calife et l'obligèrent à se soumettre à la demande du sultan.

L'une des mesures correctives prises par Alp Arslan fut d'autoriser le retour de la fille du calife au palais de son père à Bagdad. Cela se fit plutôt dans la célébration et en grande pompe. Il envoya des juges et des princes avec elle, et elle entra à Bagdad. grande splendeur, et les gens sont sortis pour voir la procession. Le calife était heureux et a ordonné des prières pour Alp Arslan et il a été dit dans la supplication : « Oh mon Dieu, redresse le grand Sultan, le soutien de l'État et la couronne de. la foi, Alp Arslan, Abu Shuja Muhammad bin Daoud.

Il ressort clairement de ce comportement qu'Alp Arslan a choisi l'approche de son père Jaghri Bey Dawud en termes de clémence et de gentillesse au lieu de l'approche de son prédécesseur Tughrul Bey, qui semblait aspirer au califat et acquérir la légitimité grâce à un fils d'une fille. de la maison abbasside, mais il ne l'a trouvé ni auprès d'elle ni chez personne d'autre.

Le respect pour les Abbassides et la loyauté envers leur califat étaient l'une des manifestations du sentiment religieux parmi les Seldjoukides et d'autres élites militaires turques qui sont apparues après eux, comme les Zengid et les Mamelouks, dit : « L'un des dirigeants turcs m'a dit. : Saviez-vous que le calife, que Dieu prolonge sa vie, s'il m'avait envoyé une armée aurait pu me vaincre ? J'ai dit : Non. Il a dit : Le prince du Khorasan. J'ai dit : Non. Il a dit ? : N'est-ce pas à cause de la distance et du grand nombre de tribus infidèles parmi nous ? J'ai dit : Oui Il a dit : Par Dieu, je suis dans l'endroit éloigné où tu me vois, et j'ai peur de mon maître, le Commandeur. des fidèles, et c'est parce que je crains que quelque chose qui lui déplaît ne m'arrive et qu'il prie pour moi. Il a donc péri à ma place, alors qu'il était dans son royaume, et entre moi et lui il y avait de vastes pays.

Filtering internal conflicts

Alp Arslan was active in liquidating military enclaves within the Abbasid state and eliminating rebellions, coup plans, and greed for power within the Seljuk house itself. He faced the revolution of his cousin Qalutmish ibn Israel, who declared his disobedience on Muharram. 10,456 AH. This rebellion ended with the death of Qalutmish with wounds. In the clashes, he then eliminated the rebellion of his uncle Pegu bin Mikael, the ruler of Herat (currently a city in Afghanistan) and the oldest of the Seljuks Alp Arslan. entered Herat and pardoned his uncle. Then he eliminates the revolt of the emir of Khatlan in Samarkand, of the emir of Saghanian in Termiz and the revolt of the king of Kerman.

Then the matter was settled for Alp Arslan Farrah to implement his tripartite plan represented by: "reviving Sunni thought", "eliminating the Fatimid state" because it was a thorn in the side of the Abbasid Caliphate , and "confront the Byzantine state", which posed an external threat to the borders of the Abbasid Caliphate and the emerging Seljuk Empire.

Regular schools

The plan of the king's regime in the face of the Shiite tide was to take care of the educational aspect, stopping the spread of Ismaili Fatimid and Imami Buyid thought with scientific and intellectual activity that revived Sunni thought and disseminated throughout a wide societal space. he created ten regular schools distributed in the areas of diffusion of Shiite thought, in response to Shiite educational activity in the East before the arrival of the Seljuks.

The Ismailis and Imamis established educational institutions in the East, notably the Dar al-Kutub in Basra, founded by Abu Ali bin Siwar during the reign of Adud al-Dawla Fanakhshar al-Buwayhi, who died in 372 AH . , the vizier of Baha al-Dawla bin Adud al-Dawla al-Buwaihi, established a Dar al-Kutub in al-Karkh, the work of which amounted to 10,400 people. Al-Sharif Al-Radi established a house of learning in Baghdad, where he spent money on his students and gave lectures.

Shia historians argue that Al-Sharif Al-Radi was the one who invented the idea of schools in Islamic history, but the Islamic school preceded him by more than a century and began in the early third century AH. As for the school in its organized institutional form, it was known in the Seljuk state, and it was the project of Minister Nizam Al-Mulk who founded and supervised it.

Regular schools, in their creation, management, vision and objectives, constituted a new educational innovation at that time. They were based on organized labor with salaries for teachers and private accommodation for students. The king's regime also chose learned and elite imams. thinkers to teach in these schools, such as the Imam of the Two Holy Mosques, Abu al-Ma'ali al-Juwayni, the sheikh of the Nizamiya of Nishapur, and Abu Ishaq al-Shirazi, the school of the sheikh of Baghdad, where it turns out that. was replaced by Hujjat al-Islam Abu Hamid al-Ghazali.

He also adopted programs that adopted a unified thought, which is Ash'ari thought, and a jurisprudential school of thought, which is Shafi'i. This departed from the approach of the previous sultan, who supported the Maturid school. It seems that Nizam al-Mulk, with his vast culture and knowledge regarding the foundations of religion and the Hanafi school of thought in matters of jurisprudence, came to know him with their entry into Islam in the space of Samanid state. details of the sects, he found his desire in the Ash'ari sect, able to perform pilgrimages with everyone, especially since he noticed another problem in the Hanbalis' control over Baghdad and their large number there, and the Hanbali sect took a firm stance in the study of the Shiism phenomenon which did not correspond to the political vision of the king's regime.

Nizam al-Mulk also supported Sufism as an alternative to what was propagated by Ismaili thought. In the Seljuk era, this approach brought with it the experience of Sufism in Central Asia and the heritage of ancient Eastern religions, particularly Turkish shamanism and Persian Zoroastrianism. Indeed, Nizam al-Mulk himself was involved in political measures at critical times. Before confronting Qalamish, and when the situation became difficult for Alp Arslan, Nizam al-Mulk told him: “I have nominated for. you, soldiers of Khorasan, who will support each other and not abandon each other, and who will shoot at your side arrows that will not fail. They are scholars and ascetics, I have made them among your greatest assistants by being good to them.

Alp Arslan Politics

With this Sufi spirit, and with the approach of gentleness and gentleness that Alp Arslan inherited from his father, Jaghri Bey Dawud, conflicts within the Seljuk Empire were calmed by entering into marriages with the heads of the entities military and political who were in constant conflict before him. Thus, political marriages took place between him and the Qarakhanids and the Ghaznavids, and he married his daughter to the Abbasid caliph. Even in military conflicts, he forgave all the leaders who rebelled against him, so he forgave and honored his uncle. Pegu, and when his cousin Qalamish was killed by the injuries he had sustained during the clashes, he cried intensely and offered his condolences to him after their clash in a bitter war.

Disagreements, conflicts and internal conflicts took time for Alp Arslan, but he eventually managed to liquidate them and challenge political selfishness with patience, forbearance and forbearance. He adopted this approach and was followed by Nour al-Din Zengi and Salah al. -Din al-Ayyubi, who spent 12 years confronting political divisions with patience and forbearance in order to unite the nation to confront the Crusaders for a period of 5 years, which resulted in the recovery of Jerusalem, and the three leaders Alp Arslan of The Seljuks, Nur al-Din Mahmoud Zengi and Saladin al-Ayyubi helped them succeed in this difficult and ideal mission of "detachment, insistence on the highest goal and deep belief in jihad".

Alp Arslan set out to carry out his main mission, which was to fight Ismaili extremism and confront the Byzantine threat. He was provoked by the possibility of a rapprochement between the Byzantines and the Fatimids, so he wanted to protect his empire by controlling Armenia. , the country of Karaj (currently Georgia) and part of Azerbaijan. This was a development of the confrontation with Byzantium, which during the reign of Tughrul Beg continued in the form of harassing raids without any attempt at settlement.

Thus, the way opened for Alp Arslan towards the Levant and Anatolia. He controlled much of it, then moved towards Aleppo and subjugated the state of Beni Mardas, loyal to the Fatimids. He insisted on ending all manifestations of Shiism. until the phrase “Live according to the best deeds” is removed from the call to prayer.

He continued his journey until he captured Ramla and Jerusalem, and only Ashkelon remained, his gateway to Fatimid Cairo, which he was determined to take back from the hands of the Ismailis and restore it to the Abbasid state, if it had not been for the news that reached it of the advance of the Byzantine emperor Roman IV with the aim of penetrating the Muslim borders from the Euphrates peninsula as a prelude to penetrate deep into Islamic lands and eliminate the Seljuk state.


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