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The story of the great Islamic conqueror Tariq bin Ziyad

 Great symbolic figure of Islam who acquired great prestige for his central role in the expansion of the Islamic State and the conquest of the lands of the Far Maghreb and the Iberian Peninsula (Andalusia). He is the figure of the great Islamic leader Tariq bin Ziyad (50-). 101 AH), one of the leaders of the Islamic conquest in the army of the governor of Africa, Musa Bin Nusayr during the reign of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid bin Abdul Malik bin Marwan bin Al-Hakam.



Tariq bin Ziyad, who moved from the African continent to Europe and led Muslim armies in battles from the conquest of Mubin in the Iberian Peninsula or Andalusia (present-day Spain and Portugal) to Rajab 92 AH/April 711 AD to rid it of the oppression of its Visigoth rulers, and the first region he settled in was - it would later bear his name - the region of Gibraltar, which transformed into an independent state under the British crown until today. This conquest marked the beginning of the Islamic presence in the country. Andalusia, which spanned about 800 years, and the crushing victory took place under his leadership in the Battle of Wadi Lakka, which ended the Gothic rule of Andalusia (Mahmoud Shalabi, p. 87 ).


The strength of Tariq bin Ziyad's personality came from the role he played, to the point that his lineage became a source of controversy and disagreement among Islamic peoples, and everyone claimed that Ibn Ziyad was of close origin and he belonged. that he was Berber, another said he was Arab, and others said he was Persian, and it reached a point. The difference is that he is Algerian or Moroccan, especially after the release of the historical series “Tariq bin Ziyad”.


Nowadays, historical series have become an important element in building historical perceptions, ideas and beliefs among nations and people regarding their past, just as these series can play a positive role in presenting history and by simplifying it for the general public by describing lives. great leaders, conquerors and scholars, they can also play a negative role by stereotyping history and constructing local ideologies, which produces different reactions to certain historical figures or events.


This month of Ramadan, the series “Tariq Ibn Ziyad” is broadcast, which is a historical series which tells the story of the conquest of Andalusia by highlighting Tariq Ibn Ziyad as a central character. After showing a few episodes of the series, the battles and events. debates broke out on social networks about the origin and identity of the great Muslim leader Tariq Ibn Ziyad, may God have mercy on him.


It is strange that Arab and Islamic accounts tell us little about the conqueror of Andalusia before his tenure as governor of Tangier, but rather a clear difference in his origin and lineage. He was said to be a Persian from Hamadan. a servant of Musa bin Nusayr, and is said to have been a captive of the Berbers. We also find those that confirm his Arab lineage, and we will try to present various of these accounts.


Ibn Adhari al-Marrakshi, the author of the book "Al-Bayan al-Maghrib fi Akhbar al-Kingul al-Andalus et al-Maghrib", cites the lineage of Tariq ibn Ziyad and says: "There is disagreement regarding his lineage . Most say he is a Berber from Nafza and a client of Musa ibn Nusayr from the Berber captivity, and others say he is a Persian. He is Tariq Ibn Abdullah Ibn Rafhu Ibn Warfjum. Ibn Yinzgassen Ibn Wilhas Ibn Yatoft Ibn Nafzaw” (Al-Marrakshi, vol. 2, p. 11).


Ibn Khaldun did not mention the lineage of Tariq ibn Ziyad in detail, but in his exposition of the circumstances of the conquest of Andalusia he attributed the lineage of Tariq ibn Ziyad to the Banu Layth, and the Banu Layth are l 'one of the well-known Arab tribes which are branches of the Kinana tribe (Ibn Khaldun, vol. 4, p. 188).


In almost the same direction, the historian Ibn Khallikan, author of the book “Deaths of notables”, traced the lineage of Tariq ibn Ziyad to the Yemeni Hadrami tribe of Sadaf (Ibn Khallikan, vol. 5, p. 320) .


Hussein Shuaib mentions in his book “Tariq bin Ziyad, the Conqueror of Andalusia” that Tariq bin Ziyad is Tariq bin Ziyad al-Barbari. He belongs to the “Al-Sadaf” tribe, and the tent camps of this tribe were located in the heights. mountains of Morocco. They were a very brutal and frequently conquering tribe, and their religion was pagan. He said historians differ regarding his lineage and fame. Some of them stated that he was of Berber origin, belonging to the Nfzawa Berber tribe. of Africa, which is the country today called "Tunisia", and in another account that he was a Berber belonging to the "Zenata" tribe.


"Some believe that he was a loyalist of the Persians from the city of Hamadan, but what is beyond doubt and historians do not dispute is that he was a loyal servant of Musa bin Nusayr, and Musa to him trusted him a lot and appointed him governor of the city of Tangier, and after that he summoned him and entrusted him with the conquest of Spain because he was known for his sincerity of courage and his courage, and as he. is probably a Berber from Africa, most of his soldiers were Berbers, because he could influence them and lead them to victory” (Shuaib, 2004, p. 11).


Furthermore, one of the pieces of evidence that some historians rely on to prove Tariq ibn Ziyad's Arab lineage is the question of his full name. He is Tariq ibn Ziyad ibn Abdullah, as mentioned in most historical sources. Arabs generally adopted the full name, while Berbers did not, besides the fact that Tariq Ziad and Abdullah are all Arabic names.


Another indication is the work carried out by Tariq bin Ziyad before the conquest. Musa bin Nusayr appointed him commander and governor of Tangier. It is known that the Umayyads generally did not appoint non-Arabs to control the army.


It is noted that Tariq bin Ziyad returned to the Levant and remained there until his death in 101 AH/720 AD. Some historians consider this as further evidence that he was Arab. If he had been barbarian, he would have done it. returned to his tribe and lived his last days among his people.


Tariq bin Ziyad fought the pagans in North Africa in many places before going to Andalusia, and through him many Moroccans converted to the Islamic religion, and Musa bin Nusayr was distinguished by his sincerity of determination, his courage and courage, in addition to what distinguished him by his eloquence of language, his force of declaration and his influence among his listeners and his desperation in jihad and in promoting the word of truth (Shuaib, p 11).


Most likely, Tariq was Berber, and most of his soldiers were as well. They had courage and courage. They were raised in the embrace of Islam and the teachings of the Holy Quran, and they became bearers of an immortal message. it made them heroes. They came for the sake of their precious and precious religion and belief. We are rather certain that the striking Islamic armies that clashed with the Spanish were baptized after God bless our Berber brothers who rushed after Tariq for good. of this religion and its propagation. The Islamic faith has merged those who joined it, Arabs and non-Arabs, into the great embrace of Islam (Al-Sallabi, 2005, vol. 2, p. 83).


In any case, whether he is of Turkish, Russian, Chinese, European, Arab or Berber origin, or whether he belongs to a region which today is part of the territory of the Kingdom of Morocco, Algeria or Yemen, no one can deny great role that this personality played in Islamic history. He was a skillful man who, thanks to his military skills, was able to complete the conquest of Andalusia and spread the true Islamic religion there.


The test for the person of faith is not modern political geography, nor odious sectarian or ethnic affiliations, but rather faith, piety, and good deeds. Islam is the religion of God Almighty for and through all human beings. heavenly messages were revealed and each prophet spoke them in the language his people spoke until Islam was finally spoken in the Arabic language in the Holy Quran, which conveyed the final heavenly message to humanity until 'on the Day of Judgment, and this in itself demonstrates with conclusive evidence the universality of Islam and that it constitutes the highest standard. The Messenger of God, may God bless him and grant him peace, said: “There is no superiority for an Arab over a non-Arab except through piety. » by Ahmad in his Musnad.


Piety and good deeds are the essence of all heavenly messages, for God Almighty addressed all the messengers and said: “O you messengers, eat good things and practice righteousness. Indeed, I know what you are doing, and your nation is yours. one nation, and I am your Lord, so fear Me” (Al-Mu’minun: 52).

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