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The story of the invader Ertugrul

 The invader Ertugrul is considered one of the most important figures in Turkish history. He made great efforts to make Anatolia his home and that of his tribe. He participated in the Seljuk wars against the Mongols and ended Byzantine hegemony. first to lay the first stone of the establishment of the Ottoman Empire, which lasted several centuries.



A number of Ottoman historians believe that the lack of contemporary sources on events in the early years of Ottoman history is the main reason for the ambiguity surrounding the Ertugrul era, as information about the early years of history Ottoman in the second half of the 13th century AD is mainly linked to popular stories written in the 13th century 15.


Origin and formation

Ertugrul Bey bin Sulaiman Shah al-Qaywi al-Turkman was born in 1189, according to which most accounts agree. The meaning of “Ertugrul” in Turkish is “the eagle man”. He comes from the Kayi (Kayi) clan of the Buruk tribe, one of the Oghuz tribes divided into 24 tribes. Ertugrul and his descendants among the sultans of the Ottoman Empire are often called Ghazi, meaning "fighter for the love of God". .”


His father was Suleiman Shah, his mother was Himah Hatun and his grandfathers were princes of the Kayi clan. He had 3 brothers: Gundogdu, Sungur Tekin and Dundar.

Ertugrul married Halima Hatun, and it is said that she played a major role in helping her husband and managing the affairs of the tribe, and he had 3 sons by her: Gunduz, Savcı and Osman.


He was known for his strength, combat skills, intelligence, justice, generosity and courage, like his father. He followed the path of the righteous. He also wanted to prepare his tribe well and build values, ideals, faith and work there. .


Fighting the Mongols and Byzantines

The Kayi tribe was moved from the plains of Western Asia to the countries of Asia Minor (Anatolia) due to Mongol attacks, and Ertugrul took over the leadership of the tribe after the death of his father. According to historical sources, this is the first real appearance of the Kayi tribe. Ertugrul was when he rushed with his army to help the Seljuks in a battle that took place near "Sivas" against the Great Mongol's unit.


Despite his lack of knowledge of the parties involved in the fighting, he entered the battle as soon as he saw the weakness of the army - which brandished the standard of Islam - and found itself on the verge of collapse. . Thanks to the support of the invader Ertugrul, the Seljuk army was victorious and the Seljuk ruler (Alaeddin Qayqbad I) rewarded him by granting him several regions and cities to become their prince.


After Ertugrul proved his loyalty to Sultan Alaeddin in several wars, he relied on him in all wars, and Ertugrul's reward after each war was new lands that he annexed to his kingdom, and he was nicknamed "the introduction of the sultan" into the Seljuk army. to advance the army with its soldiers.


In 1230, Sultan Alaeddin ceded the Karakadag region and its surroundings to Ertugrul, and he stayed there for some time before sending his son Savcı to the Sultan to ask for a new home. He later settled in the Sogut region and spent the winter there. , then he settled in the Dumanş region and spent the summer there. From these regions, Ertugrul began to organize raids against villages and towns located within the borders of Byzantium.


He also tried to establish friendships with neighboring Greek lords, such as: Tekvorun, Belcek and Melangia (today's Lefki Osmanli) and with the sons of Hüsam ad-Din Kuban, who was a member of the Kayi tribe, and Kastamonu Margref. Seljuks.


During Ertugrul's wars against the Byzantines, experienced guards gathered around him, such as: Akcakoja, Samja Surenget, Kara Tegen, Aykut and Koner, and thus the Kayi tribe grew and became stronger day by day.


After some time, the Sultan (Alaeddin Qaybad I) organized an expedition to the Byzantine lands to subdue the western borders of his country, and Ertugrul Ghazi and his army joined him and contributed to the victory of the Seljuk army in the war against the army of the Byzantine Emperor Nikaya (Iznik) Theodoros Laskaris, and the Sultan was happy when he learned about this and gave Ertugrul the Eskişehir region and its surroundings as a reward for him.


Following this victory, Sultan Alaeddin besieged the castle of Karahisar, one of the important centers of the region, but he received news of the entry of the Mongols into Anatolia. He was forced to return and leave the siege of the city to Ertugrul, who captured the castle after long struggles.


Ertugrul then annexed the village of Skud near Kutahya to his kingdom, which later became the capital of the Ottoman Empire during the reign of his son Osman in 1299.


The title "Uj Bekki", meaning the guardian of the borders, became associated with Ertugrul, one of the local rulers under the command of the Seljuk sultans present in Konya.


The number of members of the Ertugrul tribe has reached more than 4,000 people, in addition to the Turkmens and Roman Christians who joined it following the expansion of its territory over the course of a full half century, this who helped lay the first stone. for nation building and paved the way for the transition from tribe to state.


At the beginning of the founding of the state, the area of ​​influence of Ertugrul was between one thousand and two thousand kilometers, then it expanded over the course of half a century to reach approximately 4,800 kilometers.


According to historical accounts, Ghazi Ertugrul's loyalty to successive Seljuk sultans continued, and after 1279, Ertugrul handed over the leadership of the Kayi tribe to his son Osman, then he died a few years later.


Ertugrul left his son Othman a long and valuable will, in which he exhorted him to pay attention to the scholars of God, especially his Sheikh Adeeb Ali, who helped him a lot during the founding period. A small part of the will is still written at the following address: Ertugrul's tomb, and this is the part with which he exhorts his son not to disobey the sheikh.


Like his father, Othman was loyal to the Seljuk state until its fall. He therefore created the Ottoman state to mark the beginning of a new empire whose rule extended over several centuries.

The death

Ertugrul Ghazi died at the age of 90 and was buried in the town of Sogut, and accounts differ as to the determination of the date of his death.


His son, Sultan Osman Ghazi, had a sanctuary built for him in the form of a hexagonal building covered with a dome. The walls were constructed from a row of stones topped with two rows of rectangular windows. west and south-east walls. The tomb is accessed inside the sanctuary through a rectangular entrance on its sides.


The sanctuary was destroyed by gunfire during the Greek occupation, and bullet marks can still be seen today on the windows and walls.


The tomb of the invader Ertugrul became a place of visitation and members of the Karakıcilı tribe held festivals on the date of death, and their celebrations included national games, such as archery and wrestling. Even today, Ertuğrul's tomb is visited in the same place. Thus, festivals are held every year in Sogut for the anniversary of his death.


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