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The story of Italian leader Benito Mussolini

 An Italian politician, who started as a socialist and ended as a fascist, formed groups of veterans to practice violence, marched on the capital and was tasked with forming a government. He liquidated his opponents and brought his country into an alliance. with Hitler leading him into World War II, eventually being hanged in a public square.



Birth and education

Benito Andrea Mussolini was born on July 29, 1883 in the village of Dovia di Predappio in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy to a poor Italian family whose father worked as a blacksmith and whose mother was a teacher in a Catholic school.


study and training

He was prevented from entering his mother's church due to his bad behavior and stone throwing from the faithful. So his mother sent him to a boarding school run by Salesian monks, where he demonstrated excellence in education and achieved good grades.


He entered the teacher training college and obtained his teacher diploma, then enrolled in the Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Lausanne, but he did not complete his studies there.


Jobs and responsibilities

Mussolini began his professional life in Switzerland, where he immigrated in 1902. He worked as a temporary teacher in a primary school, but the school refused to renew his contract due to suspicious relations with a woman, so he practiced non-permanent jobs, including working in a construction company.


He held an administrative position at a socialist newspaper in the Italian city of Trento, then under the control of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and spent some time there working and writing.


Intellectual orientation

At the Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Lausanne, he was influenced by the Marxist ideas of Charles Péguy, focused on the need to overthrow liberal democracy and capitalism through the use of violence, and he was part of the socialist movement.


   His teacher's vision for change through violence was ingrained in him, and he embodied it by creating a chauvinistic movement known as "fascism." It became, in his hands, a movement that practiced violence without limits and in all directions. that he "does not believe in the possibility or benefit of permanent peace, but rather understands life as duty, struggle and oppression."


Political experience

Italy's declaration of war on Turkey in 1911 was a turning point in Mussolini's political career, as he led protests against the war against the backdrop of a general trend among socialists at that time. Italian history.


He entered prison following the protests which lasted several months and, upon his release, he was very well received by the socialists, who therefore appointed him editor-in-chief of their national newspaper “En avant”. expelled from work after publishing an article - without coordination with them - calling for Italy to enter World War I on the side of the Allies.


When Italy entered World War I, he virtually separated from the socialists and entered the army where he fought for two years. By the end of the war, Italy was suffering from many economic problems, such as high prices, lack of job opportunities, and strikes. .


Mussolini took advantage of the situation and founded a militant group in Milan known as Fascism. His influence grew and became an organized political movement which succeeded in getting him into Parliament in 1921. He then formed armed teams of veterans called “Squadristi” to do so. terrorize socialists and communists.


In 1922, he intensified his campaign and began to organize large demonstrations during which thousands of black shirts (emblem of the Italian fascists) participated in a march brandishing the slogan: "Either the government will be given to us, or we will take our right to march towards Rome.


Nearly fourteen thousand fascists traveled to Rome by train and bus. The prime minister called on the king to declare a state of emergency, but the latter refused and, following waves of violence and chaos, Mussolini was tasked with forming the government.


After coming to power, he abolished parties and trade union organizations, banned all activity of non-fascists, practiced repression and violence against all his opponents and declared himself sole leader.


   Regarding foreign affairs, he changed Italy's policy towards Libya, breaking agreements made with the Libyans, refusing to recognize Sharia courts in Italian-controlled areas, occupying the center of leadership Senussi in Ajdabiya and executing mujahid Omar Al-Mukhtar in 1931.


In 1935, he invaded Ethiopia and supported General Franco in the Spanish Civil War, and became closer to Nazi Germany, whose leader Adolf Hitler's ideas he admired.


   In 1939 he allied himself with Hitler and entered World War II in 1940 as part of the Axis powers led by Nazi Germany, but the Italian army achieved no significant victories and failed to occupy Greece at all. three times until units of elite Nazi forces helped him occupy. he.


In September 1943, Allied forces arrived in Sicily and the Italians revolted against him, overthrew him and put him in prison. However, a German paratrooper unit released him from prison to become the head of a nominal government in northern Italy. .


In light of the German defeat, he attempted to escape in late April 1945, but was arrested, executed and hanged with several of his collaborators in a public square.


Execution

Benito Andrea Mussolini was executed on April 28, 1945.

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